"Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire." William Butler Yeats
Why study spelling?
•Correct spelling is the only means of 'mapping' human speech to standard book print for reading.
•Correct English spelling is the basis of accurate and fluent reading, with comprehension.
•Correct spelling establishes both phonemic and graphemic awareness.
•Correct English spelling encourages early, creative composition that teaches punctuation, grammar, reasoning, and the ability to concentrate on the point of the message.
•Correct spelling taught with multi-sensory instruction addresses ALL learning styles, thus avoids discrimination.
•Correct spelling taught with a mnemonic marking system and the application of 47 of the rules of English teaches analytical thinking and reasoning skills.
•Correct spelling, with emphasis on prefixes, suffixes and roots, aids vocabulary and comprehension.
•Correct spelling eases a student's way into all of the "strands" of English because it is the only accurate basis for those strands.
Most of a student's spelling questions can be answered using the following rules. These rules are mostly from the Riggs Method, which combines the phonics-based spelling with rules system dating from the Webster-Oxford standardization of English spelling. It also provides realistic phonemic and graphemic (letter and sound) correspondences from contemporary dictionaries.
Rules For English Spelling
1.The letter q is always written with u and we say, "kw." The letter u is not a vowel here. (quiet)
2./c/ before e, i, or y says, "s" (cent, city, cycle).
3./g/ before e, i, or y may say, "j" (gentle, get).
4.Vowels a, e, o, u usually have a long vowel sound at the end of a syllable (belong, protect, futile)
5. Vowel y has a long "e" sound at the end of a syllable. (baby)
6. Vowel y, not i, is used at the end of an English word (my).
7. There are five kinds of silent final e's. The first rule (as in time) is one of the three ways a vowel says its name.
8. o-r may say, "er" when w comes before the or (for example, works).
9. We use e-i after c and in some exceptions. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. s-h is used at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending, "ship." (shut, fish, nation)
11. t-i, s-i and c-i are used to say "sh" at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. c-h says, "sh" in a word of French origin. (nation, session, special, chic)
12. s-i is used to say, "sh" when the syllable before it ends in s (session) and when the base word has an s where the word changes. (tense/tension)
13. Only s-i can say, "zh" except for t-i in "equation." (vision)
14. When a one-syllable word ends with one short vowel and one consonant, double the final consonant before adding a vowel suffix. (hop, hopping/hopped)
15. When a two-syllable word ends with a vowel and a consonant, double the final consonant when adding a vowel suffix, if the accent is on the last syllable. (admit, admitted, admitting)
16. Silent final e words are written without the e when adding an ending beginning with a vowel. (have, having)
17. We often double l, f, s, after a single vowel, at the end of a one-syllable word. (full, puff, pass)
18. Base words do not end with the letter a in a long a sound, except for the article a; a-y is used most often. (may, pay, say)
19. Vowels i and o may say, "" and "" when followed by two consonants. (find, bold - gift, bond)
20. s never follows x. (box, boxes)
21. All is written with one l when added to another syllable. (almost, also)
22. Till and full added to another syllable are written with one l. (until, fulfill)
23. 3-letter "j" (dge) may be used after a single vowel. (badge,edge,ridge,lodge,fudge)
24. When adding an ending to a word that ends with y, that has a sound alone, change the y to i unless the ending is i-n-g. (fry,fried - cry,crying)
25.2-letter "k" (ck) may be used only after a single vowel. (pack,peck,pick,pock,puck)
26.The letter z, never s is used to say, "z" at the beginning of a base word. (zero, zipper)
27.The letters e-d say, "d" and "t" as the past tense ending of any base word which does not end in the sound, "d" or "t." When e-d says "ed" after words ending with "d" or "t," they form another syllable. (loved, wrapped) (word,word ed-part,parted)
28.Double consonants within words of more than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling. (lit tle, but ton)